Feige, Edgar L., Michael Faulend, Velimir Sonje, and you may Vedran Sosic. 2003. “Unofficial Dollarization in Latin America.” The fresh new Dollarization Debate, Could possibly get, 47–71; Guidotti, Pablo Age., and you can Carlos A. Rodriguez. 1992. “Dollarization inside Latin The usa: Gresham’s Laws in reverse?” Group Documentation – Worldwide Economic Money 39 (3): 518.
Brownish, . “Local Inflation, Banking Integration, and you can Dollarization.” Writeup on Funds twenty two (6): 2073–2108; Havrylyshyn, Oleh, and you can Christian H Beddies. 2003. “Dollarisation from the Former Soviet Connection: Off Hysteria so you’re able to Hysteresis.” Relative Financial Knowledge forty five (3): 329–57; Luca, Alina, and you will Iva Petrova. 2008. “What Drives Credit Dollarization in Change Economies?” Journal out-of Financial & Financing thirty-two (5): 858–69.
Helleiner, Eric. 2003. “Dollarization Diplomacy: All of us Policy towards the Latin The usa Future Back to where it started?” Report on All over the world Political Discount ten (3): 406–31.
Eradze, Ia. 2022. “Financialisation from financial policy when you look at the an excellent dollarised economy: the way it is off Georgia.” Cambridge Log away from Economics 46 (5): 1073-1086.
Financing dollarization try mainly inspired of the shopping fund, hence exhibited more than 30 percent regarding complete financing in 2010
Giddens, Anthony. 1985. Contemporary Critique out-of Historic Materialism. Vol. dos Nation-State and you may Violence. Cambridge; Poggi, Gianfranco. 1992. The development of the modern Condition : An effective Sociological Addition. Stanford/Calif.: Stanford Univ. Advertising.; Hobsbawm, Eric J. 1992. Places and you can Nationalism while the 1780: Programme, Myth, Reality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Force; Gilbert, Emily, and you will Eric Helleiner. 1999. Nation-Claims and cash : During the last, Expose and you can Way forward for Federal Currencies. London: New york.
Cheterian, Vicken. 2008. “Georgia’s Rose Trend: Change otherwise Repetition? Pressure ranging from State-Strengthening and Adaptation Systems.” Nationalities Documentation 36 (4): 696; Jones, Stephen F. 2006. “The fresh new Rose Wave: A trend in the place of Revolutionaries?” Cambridge Review of Globally Activities 19 (1): 37; Saakashvili, Meters. 2004. Mikheil saakashvilis sitkh’va ts’armotkmuli pitsis dadebis tseremoniaze [Inaugural Message of Mikheil Saakashvili]. Federal Collection of your Georgian Parliament.
Gugushvili, Dimitri. 2017. “Courses out-of Georgia’s Neoliberal Test: A growing Tide Does not Necessarily Lift Every Boats.” Communist and you may Blog post-Communist Knowledge 50 (1): 1–14; Rekhviashvili, Lela, and you will Abel Polese. 2017. “Liberalism and paydayloansexpert.com/installment-loans-nc/ you will Trace Interventionism in the Article-Innovative Georgia (2003–2012).” Caucasus Questionnaire 5 (1): 27–fifty.
Consumer loans were generally useful financing imports you to definitely further worsened the Georgian exchange balance
Ergo, this new extension and employ of the dollars was entangled in an internet off geopolitical and you can monetary welfare. These types of passions, not, weren’t usually externally imposed. Understanding the reason away from dollarized countries is crucial to characterizing the newest dedication of dollarization and you can conceptualizing options. Peripheral claims attempt to bolster the weakened currencies so you’re able to end home-based economic consequences off rate of exchange volatilities, build the capability of economic and you will countercyclical financial regulations, and you may strengthen the systems he has getting engaging which have regional attention groups. 10 Into the each of these implies, states work each other as vessels to own competing appeal, and political agents in their own proper.
Mortgage dollarization hit 72 per cent, if you’re put dollarization is 65 % in 2011. Mortgage loans in fx also advised price dollarization on real property industry. The real house and you can structure circles came up as main winners of one’s blog post-vanguard buildup regimen, where in actuality the rates regarding rates dollarization for selecting or leasing real estate remains extremely high.
Duffy, John, Maxim Nikitin, and you may Roentgen. Todd Smith. 2006. “Dollarization Traps.” Record of money, Borrowing and you can Financial 38 (8): 2073–97; Ize, An excellent., & Levy-Yeyati, E. 2005. “Monetary De-Dollarization: Could it be for real?” IMF; Rappoport, Veronica. 2009. “Perseverance off Dollarization immediately after Rates Stabilizing.” Record regarding Monetary Business economics 56 (7): 979–89; Uribe, Martin. 1997. “Hysteresis into the an easy Model of Money Substitution.” Log from Economic Business economics forty (1): 185–202; Valev, Neven T. 2010. “The brand new Hysteresis of Currency Replacing: Money Exposure versus. Network Externalities.” Record out-of Around the globe Currency and you will Loans 29 (2): 224–35; Winkelried, Diego, and Paul Castillo. 2010. “Dollarization Time and effort and you can Personal Heterogeneity.” Record out-of International Money and you can Money 31 (8): 1596–1618.